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Cardiac Diet

Diet Origins

  • This diet is from the Lichtenstein AH et al: Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, Circulation 114:82,2006.

Diet Philosophy

  • Use up at least as many calories as you take in. 
  • Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all the food groups.
  • Eat less of the nutrient-poor foods.
  • Don’t smoke tobacco — and stay away from tobacco smoke.

Diet Claims

  • Following the diet and lifestyle recommendations can reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
  • The diet is cost effective compared to the usual treatment by a physician for patients with hypercholesterolemia.
  • Consuming two servings (8 ounces) of fish is associated with decreased risk of sudden death and coronary artery disease.
  • Decreased consumption of cholesterol, saturated fats, and trans fats can lower LDL cholesterol levels, which lowers the risk of heart disease.
  • On average, decreasing sodium intake can lower blood pressure, which can lower risk the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (heart attacks) and congestive heart failure.
  • High intakes of alcohol can increase the risk for hypertension or high blood pressure.
  • Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may lower the risk for developing high blood pressure.
  • Soluble or viscous fibers (e.g., oats, oat bran, beans, lentils, fruits and vegetables) are associated with lower LDL cholesterol levels.
  • Insoluble fiber (e.g., whole grains, wheat bran, nuts, raw fruits and vegetables) may lower your risk for cardiovascular disease.

Diet Structure

  • Balance calorie intake and physical activity.
  • Consume a diet rich in vegetables and fruits.
  • Choose whole-grain, high-fiber foods.
  • Consume fish, especially oily fish, at least twice a week.
  • Limit intake of saturated fat to
  • Minimize intake of beverages and foods with added sugars.
  • Choose and prepare foods with little or no salt.
  • If you consume alcohol, do so in moderation.
  • When you eat food prepared outside of the home, follow the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations.

Food Restrictions

  • Don’t smoke tobacco — and stay away from tobacco smoke.
  • Limit alcohol (women one drink per day and men two drink per day).
  • Choose lean meats and poultry without skin and prepare them without added saturated and trans fat.
  • Select fat-free, 1 percent fat, and low-fat dairy products.
  • Cut back on foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to reduce trans fat in your diet.
  • Cut back on foods high in dietary cholesterol. Aim to eat less than 300 milligrams of cholesterol each day.
  • Cut back on beverages and foods with added sugars.
  • Choose and prepare foods with little or no salt. Aim to eat 
  • Follow the American Heart Association recommendations when you eat out, and keep an eye on your portion sizes.

Supplements

  • 1 gm of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) from fish, if not, then from a supplement. This may help people with heart disease.

Diet Testing

  • Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-Year Mortality in Elderly European Men and Women: The HALE Project:
    • o  Background: The study observed the diet and lifestyle of 2,339 men and women between the ages of 70 and 90 years.
    • o   Results: People who followed healthy dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are less likely to have heart disease.
  • A Clinical Trial of the Effects of Dietary Patterns on Blood Pressure:
    • o   Background: The study assigned 459 people to consume a diet low in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, and fat intake that matched the average american intake. After three weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to receive a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated and total fat.
    • o   Results: The diet high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated and total fat lowered blood pressure.
  • Effects of Protein, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate Intake on Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids: Results of the Omniheart Randomized Trial:
    • o   Background: the study assigned 164 adults to one of these three diets--A diet rich in carbohydrates; a diet rich in protein, about half from plant sources; and a diet rich in unsaturated fat, predominantly monounsaturated fat.
    • o   Results: each diet decreased blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels, and risk for coronary heart disease.

References

  • Lichtenstein AH et al: Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, Circulation 114:82,2006.
  • Mahan L, Escott-Stump S. Krause’s Food and Nutrition Therapy. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.
  • Slawson D, Fitzgerald N, Morgan K. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: The role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Acad of Nutr and Diet. 2013;113:972–979.
  • Knoops K, de Groot L, Kromhout D, Perrin A, Moreiras-Varela O, Menotti A, van Staveren W. Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA. 2004;292:1433–1439.
  • Appel L, Moore T, Obarzanek E, Vollmer W, Svetkey L, Sacks F, Bray G, Vogt T, Cutler J, Windhauser M, Lin P, Karanja J. Clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1117–1124.
  • Appel L, Sacks F, Carey V, Obarzanek E, Swain J, Miller E, Conlin P, Erlinger T, Rosner B, Laranjo N, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop L. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA


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